Kashmiris’ landmark decision in 1947 | By Prof Dr Muhammad Khan



KASHMIRI’S love with Pakistan can be imagined from the fact that, before Pakistan came into being, on 19 July 1947, the people of Jammu and Kashmir unanimously adopted a resolution, for the accession of the state with the future state of Pakistan

. Then prominent Kashmir leaders; Khawaja Ghulam-ud-Din Wani and Abdul Rahim Wani moved the resolution in the emergency session of the All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference held in Srinagar.

Since Pakistan was to become a reality for the Muslim of South Asia on 14 August 1947, therefore, Kashmiri people were in hurry for these legal formalities of state’s accession with their dreamland.

The State of Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan have historical relationship, which dates back to centuries.

This relationship have rooted in the joint history of these two areas over the years and later turned into a relationship of interdependency.

Religion, common culture, joint races, migrations and inter-marriages further strengthened this bond between the people of two sides.

Besides, these linkages, geography of the Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan are another compelling factor, which essentially unite these areas. All natural routes to various parts of the Jammu and Kashmir are from Pakistan.

The only link, India exploited in 1947, through Gurdaspur (PathanKot) was an un-natural link which India manipulated through Radcliff Award through an unjustified division of Punjab.

As per the Indian partition plan (3 June 1947), Kashmir was to become part of Pakistan, based on will of the people and geographical contiguity of the state with Pakistan.

The people of Jammu and Kashmir with overwhelming Muslim population (over 77%) were deprived from their basic right to decide their future, thus rose to occasion and revolted against the Dogra Rule of Maharaja Hari Singh.

Kashmiri volunteers (irregular forces) liberated a portion of the state from the regular Army of Maharaja Hari Singh and established their own government with the name of “Azad Jammu and Kashmir”.

This portion was to act as the base camp for the liberation of rest of state from Indian occupation.

Indeed, Hari Singh wanted to keep the state independent and even negotiated the Stand Still agreements with Pakistan and India, but Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru the first Indian Prime Minister, ordered forceful military occupation of the state on October 27, 1947.

Since then India is occupying a huge portion of the state, known as; Indian Illegally Occupied Jammu and Kashmir (IIOJK).

Over the last seven decades, Kashmiri did not reconcile with the Indian rule over their state and revolted many a time against forceful Indian occupation.

In their current struggle which started in 1990 more than 100,000 Kashmiri people lost their lives at the hands of brutal Indian forces.

On August 5, 2019, India illegally revoked the special status of IIOJK and relegated it into union territories.

Prior to it, India raised deployment level of its security forces to 900,000 imposing strict curfew and siege which is continuing till-date.

There has been rise in the level of brutalities in IIOJK by Indian Army and its paramilitary forces ever since August 5, 2019.

These brutal acts of Indian security forces started in 1990 with complete impunity under the cover of discriminatory and inhuman laws like Armed Forces Special Power Act and Public Safety Act.

Nevertheless, the will of Kashmiris for attainment of their right of self-determination could not be defeated.

Since last over a year India is changing the demography of IIOJK by inhabiting non Kashmiri Hindus in IIOJK.

Indeed, apart from political dimension of Kashmir, a humanitarian aspect has evolved in IIOJK over the years.

The current phase of humanitarian dimension can be traced from the beginning of 1990, once Indian security forces initiated massive human rights violations in IIOJK. This in fact is a state sponsored terrorism by India in IIOJK.

There is an organized campaign of genocide going on in IIOJK ever since 1990, taking new turns at various phases; 2010, 2016 and 2019. The post August 5, 2019 phase was the worst for Kashmiris.

Nevertheless, they decided not to surrender thus are struggling against Indian occupation and its brutalities with new vigor and new hope.

The massive human rights violations and genocide of Kashmiri you in IIOJK is the darkest time of Indian occupation in IIOJK which civilized international community is constantly ignoring.

Although, United Nations, Amnesty International and many other human rights organizations have been raising the issue of Indian human rights violations in IIOJK but there have been no action against India on those accounts. Rather, U.S and EU have further enhanced their ties with India in last two decades.

There is no change in the determination of the people of entire Jammu and Kashmir. While the people of IIOJK have given unprecedented sacrifices in last seven decades, the post 1990 period was full of human miseries in IIOJK, These human agonies include; mass killings, custodial deaths, discovery of mass graves, arrest and torture, rapes and molestations, fake encounters and target killings of Kashmiri youth.

The Post Burhan Wani Martyrdom and Post August 5, 2019 Phases are especially cruel for the Kashmiri youth. The determined Kashmiri youth of IIOJK are all set to achieve their right of self-determination.

Despite ruthless state-sponsored terrorism of Indian security forces in IIOJK, the people of IIOJK are continuing their struggle against Indian rule.

It is incumbent upon the Government of Pakistan to pursue the Kashmir dispute at all international forums through substantial and tangible measures.

Indeed, the world needs to be realized that Kashmir dispute hold the key for peace, stability and economic prosperity of South and Central Asia.

— The writer is Professor of Politics and IR at International Islamic University, Islamabad.